გლოსარი

Design and scientific research Institutions

  • Aeroprojekt (Rus.:Аэропроект) – State design, research and scientific institute of civil aviation. Established in Moscow in 1934 to plan facilities for development of ground-based civil aviation infrastructure, such as airports etc.
  • Academproekt (Rus.:Академпроект) – State Design Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Established in 1938 by Aleksey Shchusev to build scientific institutes, museums, libraries etc. in Moscow. At present – State design institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences
  • Acharproeqti (Geo.:აჭარპროექტი) – Creative Design Workshop of the Autonomous Republic of Adjara, Batumi
  • GIProAvtoDorTrans – (Rus.:Гипроавтодортранс) State Design Institute of Automobile Repair and Road Transport Enterprises
  • GIProPromSelStroi (Rus.:Гипропромсельстрой) – state design institute for planing of Facilities for Agrimanufacturing Enterprises
  • GIProGor (Rus.:Гипрогор) – State Institute of Urban Planning. Founded in 1929 as a trust of the People’s Commissariat of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation. At present – Russian Institute of Urban Planning and Investment Development
  • GIProTorg (Rus.:Гипроторг) – Georgian branch of “Soyuzgiprotorg,” State Design Institute of Gastronomy and Commercial Enetrprises of the USSR Ministry of Commerce
  • GruzDorNII (Rus.:Груздорнии) – State Automobile Road Research and Development Institute, a branch of the all-Union “SoyuzDorNII”
  • KhramHESProject – Khrami hydroelectric power plant (1947) in Tsalka municipality on the river Khrami. Design organisation for development of the plant infrastructure
  • SaqEnergoProeqti (Geo.:საქენერგოპროექტი) – State Design Institute of “SaqEnergo”, Energy Brunch Division of the National Economy Council of the Georgian SSR
  • SaqSakhProeqti (Geo:საქსახპროექტი, Rus.:Грузгоспроект) – founded in 1932 as a Design-Consulting Trust of the Supreme Council of Transcaucasian National Economy. From 1959 until its abolition – State Design Institute of the “SakhMsheni”
  • SaqSoplMshenProeqti (Geo.:საქსოფლმშენსახპროექტი, Rus.:Сельпроект) – State Design Institute of the “Sakhmsheni”, responsible for development of rural areas, villages, residential, civil and agricultural facilities
  • SaqShakhtProject (Geo.:საქშახტაპროექტი) – State Design Institue of the Coal, Oil and Mining Industry Division of the GSSR Council of National Economy (1957-1965), later – of the Ministry of Coal Industry, the profile of which was planning of mining infrastructure
  • SaqQalaqmshenSakhProekti (Geo.:საქქალაქმშენსახპროექტი )– State Design Institute of the Ministry of Construction of the Georgian SSR for city and territorial planning with branch offices in Sokhumi and Batumi
  • Scientific-restoration workshops (Geo.:სამეცნიერო-სარესტავრაციო სახელოსნოები) – Founded in 1948 (the first organization of a similar profile in the Soviet Union). Served to conduct scientific, project and practical work in the field of architectural restoration
  • SoyuzDorProekt, Tbilisi branch (Rus.:Союздорпроект) – founded in 1938 on the Research and Development Division of the Main Highway Department and belonged to the Ministry of Interior up until 1953. 1976 -1991 its official designation was “Tbilgiproavtotrans”. The Institute mainly specialized in road construction and engineering structures. It also included the Department of Civil Buildings
  • TbilQalaqProekti (Geo.: თბილქალაქპროექტი) – State Design Institute at Executive Committee of the City Council of Tbilisi – founded in 1933. The institute developed master plans for Tbilisi and its main residential, public, administrative, industrial, medical, transport and engineering infrastructure. The institute had various divisions specializing in urban planning, architecture and engineering. In 1990-s it was abolished as a state institution and later transfomed into a LTD Tbilqalaqprojecti
  • TbilZNIIEP (Rus.:ТБИЛЗНИИЭП) – Tbilisi Zonal Scientific-Research and Design Institute for Standardised and Experimental planing of housing and public buildings. A branch of the all-Union institute was founded in Tbilisi in 1964 to undergo reorganization in 1991 and be abolished in 2006. Its work branched out in three main directions – research, design and experimental testing. The Tbilisi branch was a leader in earthquake-proof constructions
  • TouristProekt (Geo.:ტურისტპროექტი, Rus.:Туристпроект) – founded in 1978, all-Union design institute to plan tourist infrastructure, buildings and facilities. Central office in Leningrad, branches in Tbilisi, Kiev, Nalchik, Feodosia, Uzhgorod and Krasnoyarsk
  • Institute of History of Georgian Art (IHGA) – the major centre of art historical studies in Georgia. Founded in 1941. At present – Giorgi Chubinashvili National Research Centre of Georgian Art History and Monument Preservation

Construction Companies

  • Axis (Geo.:აქსისი)– Development company, founded in 1998 in Tbilisi
  • GUShosDor (Rus.:Гушосдор) – Chief Department of Highways. Functioned as а branch of the USSR Ministry of Interior since 1936. After 1953 “Gushosdor” belonged to the all-Union Ministry of Automobile Transport with a purpose of road construction, renovation and maintenance
  • OrgDorStroi – (Rus.:Оргдорстрой), State office of the Road construction management
  • SaqArchfondi – construction company with profile – architecture and design, construction
  • SaqHidroenergoMsheni – a trust of the Ministry of Melioration and Water Economy of the Georgian SSR, was responsible for the construction of hydroelectric power plants. Currently – a joint stock company with the same name
  • Tbilisi Metro Division – was established in 1965 by the resolution of the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR. The construction of the underground in Tbilisi was decided in 1952. The first line with five stations was opened in 1966

Government institutions

  • Chamber of Commers (Georgian SSR) – USSR state organization that was dealing with foreign trade. Abolished in 1991. At present – Georgian Chamber of Commerce and Industry
  • Committee of Preservation of Cultural Heritage – consulting and advisory body established in 1934. After 1959 – “Georgian Society for the Protection of Cultural Monuments”. Its purpose was to identify, protect, restore and study the cultural heritage monuments in Georgia and abroad. In 1978 renamed in the Main Scientific Division of History, Culture, Natural Monuments Protection and Use (abbreviated as the Monument Protection Division) was established. In 2004, the Department of Cultural Heritage (a government institution) was established. Since 2008 – Georgian National Agency for Cultural Heritage Preservation
  • Construction-Architectural Council of the Council of Ministers (Georgian SSR) – discussed construction projects of state importance
  • GosGrajdanStroy (Rus.:Госгражданстрой) – State Committee of Civil Engineering and Architecture was founded in 1963 as part of the Gosstroy system. It governed all the central research and development institutes and civic institutes in Tbilisi, Tashkent and Kiev
  • Ministry of Road Construction of Georgia – Previously the Highway Department at the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR between 1956 and 1968, the Ministry of Automobile Roads of Georgia functioned under the later name between 1968 and 1988
  • Ministry of Construction of Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic – established for coordinating construction work, was accountable to the Central office in Moscow
  • SakhMsheni – (Geo.:სახმშენი) – State Construction Committee of Georgian SSR subordinate to the USSR State Construction Committee (Rus.:Госстрой) of the USSR Council of Ministers. Its functions included the development and implementation of a unified technical policy to increase the efficiency of construction in the country. Therefore, its task was to manage all processes in the field of architecture and construction. In 1955 By Gosstroy has been developed the Construction Rules and Regulations, which was mandatory throughout the USSR. All non-standardised, individual or experimental projects with expenses exceeding three Million Rubles needed approval from Moscow head office
  • Tbilisi City Council – during the Russian Empire, from the XIX century to 1918, the municipal self-governing body

Educational Institutions

  • Georgian Technical University – founded in 1922 as the Polytechnic Faculty of Tbilisi State University. In 1928, it merged with the Engineering Faculty of the Tbilisi Polytechnic Institute and the Georgian State Polytechnic Institute was established. In 1936 it was renamed the Georgian Industrial Institute, in 1948 it was renamed the Georgian Polytechnic Institute, and in 1972 the institute was awarded the Order of Lenin and renamed V.I. Lenin Georgian Polytechnic Institute. It has been called Georgian Technical University since 1990. The Faculty of Civil Engineering with the Department of Architecture was established in 1922, when the University was founded. It’s name was changed several times. Since 2005 the department is called Faculty of Architecture, Urban studies and Design
  • Karl May School in St. Petersburg (Rus.:Петербургская школа Карла Мая) – a boys’ school founded in 1856 by Karl Ivanovich May, a Russian teacher of German descent, until 1918
  • Moscow Architectural Institute (Rus.:МАрхИ or МАИ) – founded in 1933, an institution of higher education trains architects in all related fields. At present – Moscow Architectural Institute (State Academy)
  • Mose Toidze Art-Vocational School – founded in Tbilisi in 1946 and was one of the oldest vocational schools in Georgia. Trained craftsmen and specialists in various fields of decorative art, who also worked in the field of architectural restoration. After 2005 – Mose Toidze Art Professional Lyceum of the Ministry of Education and Science of Georgia. In 2010 joined the Tbilisi State Academy of Arts. Canceled in 2017
  • Student Design Bureau – of the faculty of Architecture of the State Polytechnic Institute (Georgian Technical University) established in 1960 and renamed in Student Architecture Bureau in 1970. Students had an opportunity to do internship and work on a real projects under the direction of their professors
  • St. Petersburg Academy of Arts (Rus.:Петербургская Академия Художеств) – the highest educational institution of fine arts in the Russian Empire. Existed from 1757 to 1918. In addition to fine arts, there were classes where various crafts were taught
  • Tbilisi State Academy of Arts – founded in 1922 as «Georgian Academy of Arts» with faculties of painting, graphics, sculpture and architecture. It was first higher art scool in Caucasus region. In 1929 it was transformed into the Higher Art Technical Institute (Ustekin), in 1931 it was completely abolished and in 1933 it was restored as the Tbilisi State Academy of Arts. At present – Apolon Kutateladze Tbilisi State Academy of Arts.
  • Tbilisi Art School – founded in 1901 as a secondary school of painting and sculpture
  • Tbilisi Construction-Engineering Institute – established in 1930 on the basis of the Faculty of Civil Engineering, when the Georgian Polytechnic Institute was separated from the sectoral institutes, including the Transcaucasian Railway Engineering Institute
  • Transcaucasian Hydromelioration Institute – Founded in Tbilisi in 1925, moved to Ganja, Azerbaijan in 1931. Presumably under the Georgian Water Management Division, which was under the Transcaucasian Water Management Division

Professional Unions

  • Academy of Architecture (USSR) – official scientific organization established in 1933 as the All-Union Architectural Academy (Rus.:Всесоюзная Академия архитектуры). Since 1939 changed the name to USSR Academy of Architecture (Rus.: Академией архитектуры СССР). Reorganized in the Academy of Construction and Architecture of the Soviet Union (Rus.: Академия строительства и архитектуры СССР) in 1956. Existed till 1963
  • Archfond (Geo.: არქფონდი, Rus.: Архфонд) – Creative-Industrial Association of the Union of Architects of the Georgian SSR (as well as the all-Union)
  • Eastern Countries International Academy of Architecture established in the beginnig of 1990s in Baku, Azerbaijan
  • International Academy of Architecture (IAA) – established in 1987 as the NGO of Consultative Status with ECOSOC United Nations, non-profit, self-financing organization, H.Q. in Sofia, Bulgaria
  • INTERARCH – International Architecture Exhibition, organized regularly since 1981 (every two or three years) by the International Academy of Architecture (IAA) in Bulgaria
  • International Union of Architects (UIA – Fr.: Union Internationale des Architectes) – founded in 1948. A federation of national professional organizations that aims to unite architects, to influence legislative processes, to promote the development of architecture in accordance with the needs of society
  • Union of Architects (USSR) (Rus.: Союз архитекторов СССР) – founded in 1932 as the Union of Soviet Architects (Rus.: Союз советских архитекторов (ССА) following Stalin’s order to ban all free creative groups and associations. The periodical of the Union of Architects from 1933 to 1992 was the monthly magazine “Architektura SSR” (Rus.: Архитектура СССР). The Union organized eight congresses in 1937, 1955, 1961, 1965, 1970, 1975, 1981 და 1987. The USSR Union of Architects included unions of all republics, autonomous republics, regions, cities etc.
  • Georgian Union of Architects (Geo.: საქართველოს არქიტექტორთა კავშირი) was founded in 1934 as the “Union of Soviet Georgian Architects”. In 1947 renamed as the “Georgian Union of Architects”. Till 1990 was included into the USSR Union of Architects. In 1990 renamed as the “Independent Union of Georgian Architects” and in 1991 the previous name was restored

Employee Positions

  • Chief Architect of the City – was responsible for the planning and development of the city and for the quality of the architecture, the development and implementation of the master plan, ensuring the economics of construction, the construction of new residential areas and the reconstruction of the old building fabric. The chief architect of the city headed the main architectural-planning division. He was directly subordinated to the City Council or the State Construction Committee (Sakhmsheni) of the Republic. In different years, at the office of the Chef Architect there was working an Advisory Council
  • City Architect (Rus.: Городской Архитектор) – Chief Architect of the city during the Russian Empire. He was in charge of “technical-police” supervision over the constructions, not allowing illegal construction, issuing permits, drawing up and inspecting projects and construction costs, etc. Considered a high-ranking official and had great responsibility, which is why the best architects and engineers were appointed

Titles

  • People’s Architect of the Soviet Union – Honorary title was introduced in 1967 by the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. It was granted for a special contribution to the development of Soviet architecture, urban planning, creation of modern civic, industrial and rural architectural complexes, buildings and structures, which gained all-union public recognition. Archil Kurdiani was awarded the title as the first Georgian architect in 1970.
  • Honoured architect (of the Soviet Uninon or Republic) – Soviet state honorary title used to be given to architects for their outstanding achievement in development of Soviet architecture (all-Union level) or local architecture (at the level of the Republic)
  • Honoured Artist (of the Soviet Uninon or Republic) – Soviet state honorary title of Presidium of the Supreme Soviet for well known actors, artists, composers, filmmakers, architecs etc. for their outstanding achievement in development of Arts
  • Honoured Engineer – Established in 1960. Soviet and/or Republican honorary titles for special merit in the development of civil engineering in the Soviet Union (USSR) or the Republic (Republic level)
  • Honoured Inventor – Established in 1959. Soviet and/or Republican honorary titles were awarded to authors for inventions that gave rise to new directions of technology and technology and were of particular importance for the development of the national economy

Honours and Awards

  • Council of Ministers Prize ((of the Soviet Uninon or Republic) – an important prize established in 1969. Awarded for outstanding achievements in the development of national economy and science. Repealed in 1991
  • Certificate or diploma and Certificate of Honour of the Presidium Supreme Council (Georgian SSR) – Soviet Award, awarded for achievements in the development of public agriculture, science, culture and other fields. Citizens, institutions, organizations, etc. were awarded
  • Komsomol Prize (of the Soviet Uninon or Republic) – an award established by the State Committee of Science and Technology of the USSR in 1966. Awarded to young authors and / or collectives for outstanding achievements in the fields of literature, art, journalism and architecture. Abolished in 1991. (Komsomol – The All-Union Leninist Young Communist League (Russian: Всесоюзный ленинский коммунистический союз молодёжи (ВЛКСМ)
  • Order of Friendship of Peoples – State Award of the USSR. Established in 1972 on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the creation of the Soviet Union. The Order was awarded to citizens of the Soviet Union and foreigners, as well as to institutions for their work for friendship and fraternal cooperation between the socialist nations. Repealed in 1991
  • Badge of Honour – State Award of the USSR. Established in 1935 for high achievements in industry, science, state, culture, sports, other public services etc. Both individuals and institutions were awarded. Foreigners and organizations outside the USSR were also awarded the Order. Repealed in 1991
  • Order of Honour – State Award of Georgia. Founded in 1992. Citizens working in all fields who contribute to the building of an independent Georgian state are awarded
  • Order of the Red Banner of Labor – was an award established in 1928 to honour great services to the Soviet state in different fields of labour activities. Abolished in 1991.
  • Shota Rustaveli Prize – State prize of Georgia established in 1965 by Council of Ministers of Georgian SSR. Awarded in the fields of Art, architecture and humanities, for outstanding work that have gained national recognition. (Shota Rustaveli (XII c) – medieval Georgian poet, the author of the national epic poem “The Knight in the Panter’s Skin”)
  • USSR State Prize an award in Literature, Art and Architecture – established by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the USSR and the Council of Ministers in 1966 (instead of the Stalin Prize from 1941-1955). The second most important state prize in the USSR after the Lenin Prize was 5 000 Rubles. Abolished in 1991. The republics had established a similar award – State prize of the Georgian SSR in the field of architecture

Various

  • Samkhatvro Kombinati – Art Combine, a sort of an art and artisan workshops of Artists Union of Georgia. Designed and manufactured all kinds of decorative art production such as ceramics, mosaics, metalwork etc. for minor architecture and artistic decoration of buildings
  • TbilQalaqGapormeba (Geo.: თბილქალაქგაფორმება) – Municipal design office for public urban spaces